[D] His ashes were delivered to his family later that day, and are deposited in Los Boldos, Santo Domingo, Valparaiso, Chile; one of his personal residences.  Robert Paxton meanwhile compared Pinochet's regime to that of Mobutu Sese Seko in the former Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), arguing that both were merely client states that lacked popular acclaim and the ability to expand. During a 1986 protest against Pinochet, 21-year-old American photographer Rodrigo Rojas DeNegri and 18-year-old student Carmen Gloria Quintana were burnt alive, with only Carmen surviving.  Operation Condor was founded at the behest of the Pinochet regime in late November 1975, his 60th birthday. , Augusto Pinochet rose through the ranks of the Chilean Army to become General Chief of Staff in early 1972 before being appointed its Commander-in-Chief on 23 August 1973 by President Salvador Allende. January 5, 1923 « » Log in or sign up. , Pinochet portrayed himself as a common man with simple ideas.  According to the Chilean government, the number of executions and forced disappearances was 3,095. ", Pinochet resigned from his senatorial seat shortly after the Supreme Court's July 2002 ruling.  Anna Cento Bull also excluded Pinochet from fascism, although she has argued that his regime belongs to a strand of Cold War anti-communism that was happy to accommodate neo-fascist elements within its activity. Rodríguez had previously lectured Pinochet and René Schneider and Carlos Prats in geography and geopolitics. Political advertising was legalized on 5 September 1987, as a necessary element for the campaign for the "NO" to the referendum, which countered the official campaign, which presaged a return to a Popular Unity government in case of a defeat of Pinochet. November 25, 1915. 1995. These amendments changed the way the Constitution would be modified in the future, added restrictions to state of emergency dispositions, the affirmation of political pluralism, and enhanced constitutional rights as well as the democratic principle and participation to political life.  He was greeted by his successor as head of the Chilean armed forces, General Ricardo Izurieta. 20 March 2005. His government disappeared 3,000 opponents, arrested 30,000 (torturing thousands of them) ... Pinochet's name will forever be linked to the Desaparecidos, the Caravan of Death, and the institutionalized torture that took place in the Villa Grimaldi complex. At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. El Rodriguista, 11 Años de Lucha y Dignidad, 1994", "A Bombshell on Pinochet's Guilt, Delivered Too Late", "Get to Know the Memes of the Alt-Right and Never Miss a Dog-Whistle Again", "Chilean army admits 120 thrown into sea", "Jaime Guzmán no fue un defensor de los Derechos Humanos en el Régimen de Pinochet", "Buenos Aires Journal; Timerman, Stranger in Two More Strange Lands", "Periodista peruano: A Fujimori le gustaba que lo llamaran "Chinochet, "Hissène Habré, 'Africa's Pinochet', found guilty of crimes against humanity", "Augusto Pinochet es un ícono dentro del movimiento de derecha radical que llevó a Donald Trump a la presidencia", "As GOP Reconsiders Trump as Standard Bearer", "Exclusivo: Viaje al fondo de la biblioteca de Pinochet", "Pinochet, un "intelectual limitado" que copió libros, según escritor", "JUAN CRISTÓBAL PEÑA: "SE HA MENOSPRECIADO A PINOCHET EN SU CAPACIDAD INTELECTUAL, "A Chilean Dictator's Secret Book Collection: Heavy on Napoleon, Light on Fiction", "Latin American Studies Association: Login", "Pinochet, con nombres de "chapa", abrió cuentas en el Riggs en 1985", Pinochet receives a hero's welcome on his return, "The Appeals Court Ruling Is Negotiated Out for Pinochet", "Pinochet Competent, Must Stand Trial, Judge Rules", "El juez Guzmán procesa a Pinochet y ordena su arresto domiciliario por asesinato y secuestro", Levée de l'immunité de Pinochet pour le meurtre d'un chimiste, General (r) Manuel Contreras: Eugenio Berríos está vivo, "Hijo de Pinochet acusa de "mentiroso y canalla" a ex jefe DINA", Procesan a Pinochet y ordenan su arresto por los secuestros y homicidios de la "Caravana de la Muerte", https://www.senate.gov/~levin/newsroom/release.cfm?id=233631, Corte revoca mayoría de procesamientos en caso Riggs, Cobertura Especial: Detienen a familia y principales colaboradores de Pinochet, Detective story that linked £1m Pinochet cash to BAE, Gerardo Huber sabía demasiado, pero no alcanzó a contarlo. However, on 2 December 1971, following series of peaceful protests against economic policies of Allende, the curfew was re-installed, all protests prohibited, with Pinochet leading the crackdown on anti-Allende protests. , However, he and his government are generally excluded from academic typologies of fascism.  It also prescribed an 8-year presidential period, and a single-candidate presidential referendum in 1988, where a candidate nominated by the Junta would be approved or rejected for another 8-year period. Augusto Pinochet was the leader of the military junta that overthrew Chile’s President Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973. In Santiago, opponents celebrated his death in Alameda Avenue, while supporters grieved outside the Military Hospital.  For example, journalist and author Samuel Chavkin, in his book Storm Over Chile: The Junta Under Siege, repeatedly characterizes both Pinochet himself and the military dictatorship as fascist. Yasser Arafat was chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1969 until his death in 2004, a tumultuous period in which clashes with neighboring Israel were prevalent. Pinochet seized power in Chile in a coup d'état, with the support of the U.S.,[B] that toppled Allende's democratically elected Unidad Popular government and ended civilian rule. The Supreme Court affirmed, in March 2005, Pinochet's immunity concerning the 1974 assassination of General Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires, which had taken place in the frame of Operation Condor. His wife, Lucía Hiriart, and his son, Marco Antonio Pinochet, were also sued for complicity. These were possible in Chile only after Pinochet was arrested in 1998 in the United Kingdom, on an extradition request issued by Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. On 11 September 1973, the combined Chilean Armed Forces (the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Carabineros) overthrew Allende's government in a coup, during which the presidential palace, La Moneda, was shelled and most likely where Allende was said to have committed suicide. Augusto Pinochet, the former dictator of Chile, died on Sunday at the age of 91; the debate over how to pronounce his name lives on. Augusto Pinochet (born in 1915 and died in 2006) was a Chilean soldier, president, commander-in-chief, intellectual, author, military theorist and leader of the Chilean Military Revolution, who fought against the establishment of a Marxist tyranny in his country. Being from the United States, the death of General Augusto Pinochet brings back many memories of the military coup and the role played by my government in the violent overthrow of Allende. A. Cento Bull, 'Neo-Fascism', R.J.B. While there, he was appointed professor of the Chilean War Academy, and returned to Santiago to take up his new position.. General Augusto Pinochet came to power in Chile in 1973 by leading a military coup during which democratically elected socialist President Salvador Allende died. In July 2002, the Supreme Court dismissed Pinochet's indictment in the various human rights abuse cases, for medical reasons (vascular dementia). According to John Dinges, author of The Condor Years (The New Press 2003), documents released in 2015 revealed a CIA report dated 28 April 1978 that showed the agency by then had knowledge that Pinochet ordered the assassination of Orlando Letelier, a leading political opponent living in exile in the United States. In 2004, a United States Senate money laundering investigation led by Senators Carl Levin (D-MI) and Norm Coleman (R-MN)—ordered in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks—uncovered a network of over 125 securities and bank accounts at Riggs Bank and other U.S. financial institutions used by Pinochet and his associates for twenty-five years to secretly move millions of dollars.  Among the killed and disappeared during the military junta were 440 MIR guerrillas. The case against Pinochet did not begin in October 1998, however. Pinochet's remains lay in repose on 11 December 2006 at the Military Academy in Las Condes. In arguing their case, the prosecution presented a recent TV interview Pinochet had given to journalist Maria Elvira Salazar for a Miami-based television network, which raised doubts about his alleged mental incapacity. Pinochet human rights violations", The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy, "OCDE destaca reducción de la pobreza y la desigualdad en Chile, pero asegura que aún hay desequilibrios", "Le Chili met fin à l'interdiction stricte d'avorter", "Aborto terapéutico: Demanda de las mujeres", "Margaret Thatcher Foundation.  In 1976, Codelco was established to exploit them but new mineral deposits were opened to private investment. Augusto Pinochet (November 25, 1915–December 10, 2006) was an army officer and dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990. Two years later, in 1939, then with the rank of Sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso. Pinochet died December 10, 2006, never having stood trial for the crimes for which he was accused. In the days that followed his military coup, hundreds of people, were rounded up and taken to the two main sport stadiums in the capital, Santiago. In a 1988 plebiscite, 56% voted against Pinochet's continuing as president, which led to democratic elections for the presidency and Congress. , According to Peter Kornbluh in The Pinochet File, "routine sadism was taken to extremes" in the prison camps. Interviews after Pinochet's departure with people involved with the referendum confirmed that fraud had, indeed, been widespread. In Latin America, this was made in the frame of Operation Condor, a cooperation plan between the various intelligence agencies of South American countries, assisted by a United States CIA communication base in Panama. He rose through the ranks and was appointed Commander in Chief by President Salvador Allende in 1973… ", The practice of murdering political opponents via "death flights", employed by the juntas of Argentina and Chile, has sometimes been the subject of numerous alt-right and other right-wing extremist groups internet memes, with the suggestion that political enemies and leftists be given "free helicopter rides. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, "U.S. DINA led the multinational campaign known as Operation Condor, which amongst other activities carried out assassinations of prominent politicians in various Latin American countries, in Washington, D.C., and in Europe, and kidnapped, tortured and executed activists holding left-wing views, which culminated in the deaths of roughly 60,000 people.  MacLean's account, however, has come under scrutiny. , On 25 November 2006, Pinochet marked his 91st birthday by having his wife read a statement he had written to admirers present for his birthday: "I assume the political responsibility for all that has been done. , Over several months in 2005, Chilean judge Sergio Muñoz indicted Augusto Pinochet's wife, Lucia Hiriart; four of his children – Marco Antonio, Jacqueline, Veronica and Lucia Pinochet; his personal secretary, Monica Ananias; and his former aide Oscar Aitken on tax evasion and falsification charges stemming from the Riggs Bank investigation.  The money for the drug trade was allegedly deposited into Pinochet's bank accounts. A further consignment of three frontier surveillance and shipping reconnaissance Canberras left for Chile in October. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, more commonly known as Augusto Pinochet (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006), was dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 and …  Pinochet was also trained by the School of the Americas (SOA) where it is likely he first encountered the ideals of the coup. After stepping down in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 10 March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. In his new function, he was also appointed Intendent of the Tarapacá Province. In March 1985, the murder of three Communist Party members led to the resignation of César Mendoza, head of the Carabineros and member of the junta since its formation. MacLean, Nancy (2017) "Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right's Stealth Plan for America." Almost immediately after the military's seizure of power, the junta banned all the leftist parties that had constituted Allende's UP coalition.  In 2006, Pinochet was indicted for kidnappings and torture at the Villa Grimaldi detention center by judge Alejandro Madrid (Guzmán's successor), as well as for the 1995 assassination of the DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios, himself involved in the Letelier case. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us!  Among the killed and disappeared during the military regime were at least 663 Marxist MIR guerrillas. , In 2007, fifteen years of investigation led to the conclusion that the 1992 assassination of DINA Colonel Gerardo Huber was most probably related to various illegal arms traffic carried out, after Pinochet's resignation from power, by military circles very close to himself. Augusto Pinochet, in full Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, (born November 25, 1915, Valparaiso, Chile—died December 10, 2006, Santiago), leader of the military junta that overthrew the socialist government of Pres. Pinochet's bulletproof Mercedes Benz vehicle was struck by a rocket, but it failed to explode and Pinochet suffered only minor injuries.. At the end of 1959 he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the 1st Army Division, based in Antofagasta. A document released by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 2000, titled "CIA Activities in Chile", revealed that the CIA actively supported the military junta after the overthrow of Allende, and that it made many of Pinochet's officers into paid contacts of the CIA or U.S. military, even though some were known to be involved in human rights abuses. Some of the government properties were sold below market price to politically connected buyers, including Pinochet's own son-in-law. Augusto Pinochet friends: Margaret Thatcher.  His fortune grew considerably during his years in power through dozens of bank accounts secretly held abroad and a fortune in real estate.  The United States provided key organizational, financial and technical assistance to the operation. She was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. The DINA biochemist was also alleged to have created black cocaine, which Pinochet then sold in Europe and the United States. For the fourth time in seven years, Pinochet was indicted by the Chilean justice. This forced them to negotiate all law projects with the Alliance for Chile (originally called "Democracy and Progress" and then "Union for Chile"), a center-right coalition involving the Unión Demócrata Independiente (UDI) and Renovación Nacional (RN), parties composed mainly of Pinochet's supporters. , Pinochet suffered a heart attack on the morning of 3 December 2006 and was given the last rites the same day. On 30 January 1943, Pinochet married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie, Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes. It really began in the early years of Pinochet's 1973-1990 dictatorship when … It was formed by the Christian Democracy, the Socialist Party and the Radical Party, gathered in the Alianza Democrática (Democratic Alliance). A significant part of the books and documents of the library of José Manuel Balmaceda was found in Pinochet's library in 2006. , After having been placed under house arrest in Britain in October 1998 and initiating a judicial and public relations battle, the latter run by Thatcherite political operative Patrick Robertson, he was released in March 2000 on medical grounds by the Home Secretary Jack Straw without facing trial. Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet overthrew the Allende government in 1973 and stayed in power until 1998. The new constitution was approved by a margin of 67.04% to 30.19% according to official figures; the opposition, headed by ex-president Eduardo Frei Montalva (who had supported Pinochet's coup), denounced extensive irregularities such as the lack of an electoral register, which facilitated multiple voting, and said that the total number of votes reported to have been cast was very much larger than would be expected from the size of the electorate and turnout in previous elections. He was then sworn in as a senator-for-life, a privilege granted by the 1980 constitution to former presidents with at least six years in office.  Pinochet's controversial relationship with Thatcher led Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair to mock Thatcher's Conservatives as "the party of Pinochet" in 1999. The bank controlled between US$4 million and $8 million of the assets of Pinochet, who lived in Santiago in a modest house, dissimulating his wealth. ", Chile was officially neutral during the Falklands War, but Chile's Westinghouse long-range radar that was deployed in the south of the country gave the British task force early warning of Argentinian air attacks. , The following year he returned to his studies in the Academy, and after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. Professor Clive Foss, in The Tyrants: 2500 Years of Absolute Power and Corruption (Quercus Publishing 2006), estimates that 1,500–2,000 Chileans were killed or "disappeared" during the Pinochet regime. 9 "Las Panteras Negras" Squadron. In Spain, supporters of late dictator Francisco Franco paid homage to Pinochet. Augusto Pinochet was a military officer in Chile who led the U.S.-backed military coup that overthrew President Salvador Allende’s socialist government. In October 1998 he became the centre of international attention when he was arrested in London, following a request from Spain for his extradition to stand trial for ‘crimes of genocide and terrorism’, in which some of the victims had been Spanish nationals. Though the subcommittee was charged only with investigating compliance of financial institutions under the USA PATRIOT Act, and not the Pinochet regime, Senator Coleman noted: This is a sad, sordid tale of money laundering involving Pinochet accounts at multiple financial institutions using alias names, offshore accounts, and close associates. Winn also points out that the US imposed an "invisible blockade" that was designed to disrupt the economy under Allende, and contributed to the destabilization of the regime. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte was born into a middle-class family Nov. 25, 1915, in the port city of Valparaiso. , According to Pinochet, who was aware of his ancestry, he was taught the French language by an uncle, although he later forgot most of it. The government's violence was directed not only against dissidents but also against their families and other civilians. In a massive operation spearheaded by Chilean Army para-commandos, some 2,000 security forces troops were deployed in the mountains of Neltume from June to November 1981, where they destroyed two MIR bases, seizing large caches of munitions and killing a number of guerrillas. Pinochet died a few days later, on 10 December 2006, without having been convicted of any of the crimes of which he was accused. All other parties were placed in "indefinite recess" and were later banned outright.  CIA contact with DINA head Manuel Contreras was established in 1974 soon after the coup, during the Junta period prior to official transfer of Presidential powers to Pinochet; in 1975, the CIA reviewed a warning that keeping Contreras as an asset might threaten human rights in the region. Thereafter, Aylwin won the December 1989 presidential election with 55% of the votes, against less than 30% for the right-wing candidate, Hernán Büchi, who had been Pinochet's Minister of Finances since 1985 (there was also a third-party candidate, Francisco Javier Errázuriz, a wealthy aristocrat representing the extreme economic right, who garnered the remaining 15%). Many people believe Pinochet did some good things for his country. International lending organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums anew. "Pinochet must now give account for more than 3,000 deaths, exiles and tortures in the 17 years of his dictatorship."  The CIA also maintained contacts in the Chilean DINA intelligence service. " In 2011, the commission identified an additional 9,800 victims of political repression during Pinochet's rule, increasing the total number of victims to approximately 40,018, including 3,065 killed. According to a government commission report that included testimony from more than 30,000 people, Pinochet's government killed at least 3,197 people and tortured about 29,000. Everything is embodied in Pinochet, it's very curious that figures of the stature of Büchi are immolated before the figure of Pinochet, in what is to me a fascist rite, give everything to the Führer, "I did it, but ultimately it was him".  That same month 62-year-old Guillermo Reyes Rammsy, a former Chilean soldier during the Pinochet years, was arrested and charged with murder for boasting of participating in 18 executions during a live phone-in to the Chilean radio show "Chacotero Sentimental. In 1985, the government initiated a second round of privatization, revising previously introduced tariff increases and creating a greater supervisory role for the Central Bank. At Villa Grimaldi, prisoners were dragged into the parking lot and had the bones in their legs crushed as they were run over with trucks. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte joined the Chilean army in 1935. These mines would ultimately help them economically however they would fall partly in American hands. Pinochet, who still benefited from a reputation of righteousness from his supporters, lost legitimacy when he was put under house arrest on tax fraud and passport forgery, following the publication by the US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of a report concerning the Riggs Bank in July 2004. Ceme Centro De Estudios Miguel Enriquez", "Aquellos que todo lo dieron. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle, as debt obligations, such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments, were honored. Pinochet directed the coup of September 11, 1973, and presided until 1990 over a military regime that violated human rights, shut down political parties, canceled elections, constrained the press and trade unions, and engaged in other undemocratic actions during its more than 16 years of rule. On September 11, 1973, Augusto Pinochet seized power in Chile by force. The US provided material support to the military government after the coup, although criticizing it in public. Dictator, army general.  For most of the 1990s, Chile was the best-performing economy in Latin America, though the legacy of Pinochet's reforms continues to be in dispute.  According to The Shock Doctrine by Naomi Klein, by the late 1980s, the economy had stabilized and was growing, but around 45% of the population had fallen into poverty while the wealthiest 10% saw their incomes rise by 83%. , Under the influence of the free market-oriented "Chicago Boys," Pinochet's military government implemented economic liberalization, including currency stabilization, removed tariff protections for local industry, banned trade unions, and privatized social security and hundreds of state-owned enterprises. Benazir Bhutto became the first female prime minister of Pakistan in 1988. However, he was deemed fit to stand trial for Operation Colombo, during which 119 political opponents were "disappeared" in Argentina. , World Fascism: a Historical Encyclopedia notes that "Although he was authoritarian and ruled dictatorially, Pinochet's support of neoliberal economic policies and his unwillingness to support national businesses distinguished him from classical fascists.". General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was a Chilean army general who led Chile from 1973 to 1990, who came to power after he overthrew Salvador Allende, a socialist president. They are accused of having illegally transferred $27m (£13.2m) to foreign bank accounts during Pinochet's rule. , The new government rounded up thousands of people and held them in the national stadium, where many were killed.  Chadian dictator Hissène Habré, a Cold War ally of the West, has been characterized as "Africa's Pinochet" for ordering the torture and mass killing of political opponents during his reign, and for the decades long campaign to see him convicted of crimes against humanity. Also bad, because he killed a lot of people and terrorized the rest. Outside Chile, the general is almost universally vilified - … Despite denial of countless American agencies, current declassified documentation has proven the American involvement.  Pinochet would later succeed Rodríguez in the geopolitics and geography chair. On 4 December 2006, the Chilean Court of Appeals ordered the suspension of his house arrest.  A common nickname used by both younger generations is el tata (Chilean Spanish equivalent of "the grandpa"). [C], Pinochet's reputation led Peruvians in the 1990s to call Alberto Fujimori "chinochet" instead of his ordinary nickname "chino". General Augusto Pinochet, who ruled Chile as a dictator for 17 years, is dead.  The Constitution was promulgated on 21 October 1980, taking effect on 11 March 1981. The extent of his library was only known to the public after a police inspection in January 2006. Of Santiago in 1997 and lasted until 2004 [ 29 ], Pinochet portrayed himself as a former General President! Opposition to the Chilean people denied Pinochet a new mandate, opening the way for the Vietnam War.! He led the military 's seizure of power, the General is almost vilified. In 1976, Codelco was established to exploit them but new mineral deposits opened... Replacing the 1925 constitution drafted during Arturo Alessandri 's presidency Santiago 's airport was to triumphantly get up his. Embezzlement, tax fraud, and civil unrest in Chile that lasted from to! The War Academy in Las Condes September 2001 attacks in the infantry 's presidency 112! 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