Learn. For other good resources, check out Educational Game Design, EdTech guides and virtual reality for education. As a class of formal ethical theories, deontology has its origins in the ethical approach of the 18th-Century German philosopher, Immanuel Kant. Want a convenient ad-free PDF eBook of the summaries and guides on this site? Ethical Theory: an Overview Introduction: 1. Living an ethical, or good life, then, consists in the possession of the right character traits (virtues) and having, as a result, the appropriate moral character. Aristotle’s virtue ethics, Kant’s deontological ethics, Mill’s consequentialism (Utilitarianism) and the Bhagwad Gita’s Nishkam Karmayoga are some of the theories in Normative Ethics. There are disagreements about what precisely gives an action, rule, or disposition its ethical force. Virtue ethics focuses on one’s character and the virtues for determining or evaluating ethical behaviour. Deontological theories of ethics (Kantian ethics, for example) view the moral status of an action as dependent on its being in accord with a duty or rule of right action. Interestingly, Curtin, Gallicano and Matthew found that, when faced with ethical situations in public relations, “Millennials will use utilitarian reasoning to avoid confrontation and achieve consensus.” The attraction of this ethical perspective may lie in the fact that it appears to be a way to weigh out the impact of behavior and determine the greatest good for the greatest number. Students are then... Summary: Self-perception theory describes the process in which people, lacking initial attitudes or emotional responses, develop them by observing their... Summary: Social identity theory proposes that a person’s sense of who they are depends on the groups to which they... Mindset Theory Your intelligence and other characteristics – where do they come from? Each theory emphasizes different points such as predicting the outcome and following one's duties to … The challenges to this perspective, however, include 1) conflicts that arise when there is not an agreement about the principles involved in the decision; 2) the implications of making a “right” choice that has bad consequences; and 3) what decisions should be made when duties conflict. The Golden Mean ethical theory was proposed by Aristotle. These challenges are definitely ones that should be considered when relying on this as an ethical system. 1 of 2, Learning Theories in Plain English Vol. Originator: Jean Lave[1]... Summary: Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that occurs when people are at risk for living up to a negative stereotype... Summary: Intrinsically motivating instruction takes place in computer gaming software when it provides players with choice around three key categories:... Summary: Positive psychology is the study of happiness, flourishing, and what makes life worth living. Christopher_Butler96. The term “ethics” have been derived from the Greek word “ethos” which means character, habit, disposition or custom. Privacy Policy | Copyright Information and Legal Statements, 1. All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). Virtue-based ethical theories place much less … Depending upon the ethics a person is intended to follow, four theories were postulated by... Golden Mean. Top writers. Describe the various major theories about ethics in human decision making. The three main business ethics theories are deontological theory, utilitarianism, and norm theory. Metaethical Theories There are two types of metaethical theories which are cognitive and noncognitive theories. The three ethical theories are metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. Four broad categories of ethical theory include deontology, utilitarianism, rights, and virtues. those of Spinoza, Butler, Hume, Kant and Sidgwick. Some business ethics models are built on Immanuel Kant's philosophy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Virtue Ethic Terms in this set (6) Virtue Ethics - Aristotle (teleological) - Maintain a virtuous disposition - Act out of concerns for the right of others - Seek true justice. 2 The Reluctant Donor Case: Suppose that you are famous transplant surgeon, and that your transplants always work. Approximately 9 cards per printable sheet (18 sheets, front and back). Here are a few ethical theories to whet your appetite: Virtue […] Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company. Non-Cognitivist theories are metaethical theories that argue against the claim that ethical terms are informative and rest to certain facts about the universe or human nature, i.e., ethical terms are thought to be non-descriptive and to express little more than personal attitudes, endorsement, or commendation. There are three main concerns that seem to arise when public relations professionals rely on utilitarian ethics to make decisions. 7 This conception of ethics can be summarized by the common phrase, "The ends never justify the means." There are many ways of dividing up types of ethical theories. Get updates by subscribing to our newsletter! A great study tool! Write. PLAY. As mentioned previously, Rae suggests that ethics are a process that is both an art and a science. Next, choose two philosophers’ original texts to examine in detail. Here are a few ethical theories to whet your appetite: Virtue ethics states that character matters above all else. aspects of an ethical dilemma important to them and leads them to the most ethically correct resolution according to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. Figures - available via license: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Content may be subject to copyright. Normative Ethical Theories. We act according to goals we intend to reach, such as increasing happiness (ours and that of others), reducing harm suffered by sentient beings, and benefiting the worst-off. While this idea initially may seem appealing, particularly with a field that has a core duty to the public, it does not provide a solid ethical framework for decision-making. Applied ethics is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. : Ethics provides a set of standards for behavior that helps us decide how we … Spell. The word "ethics" stems from the Greek word "ethos," which means a custom or habit. Consequentialism. Ethics. He was known for the ‘Categorical Imperative’ that looks for transcendent principles that apply to all humans. This philosophy stems from Aristotle and is based on the virtues of the person making a decision. Can they change? Ethical theories are important to study in order to establish a strong foundation for challenging situations or guide decisions — how do we know whether something is right or wrong? Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with human action. The three main ethical theories I have chosen that could’ve changed the decision and result are; Mills—Consequentialism, Kant—Deontology, and Rawls –theory of distributive justice. When learning how to resolve ethical dilemmas, it is important to be able to articulate a justifiable rationale for why we believe one decision seems right and another seems wrong. A set of 80 learning theories and models cards. If there is a virtue of loyalty to a client and honesty to the public, what happens when they conflict? Expertise theory specifies how talent develops across specified fields or domains, focusing on cognitive task analysis (to map the domain),... Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model is a theory of educational psychology that studies human development over time. Virtue Ethics. Types of Teleological Ethical Theories Ethical Egoism: The ethical egoism is a teleological theory that posits, an action is good if it produces or is likely to produce results that maximize the person’s self-interest as defined by him, even at the expense of others. Seligman points to five factors... Summary: Digital citizenship is the state of having access to the Internet and communication technologies that help promote equal opportunity,... A common criticism of educational theory is that it is often separated from practice. Ethical systems can generally be broken down into three categories: deontological, teleological and virtue-based ethics. For example, if the virtue of honesty is the of utmost importance to a good public relations professional, then all decisions should be made ethically to ensure honesty is preserved. Types of Ethical Theories Depending upon the ethics a person is intended to follow, four theories were postulated by four different philosophers. 63 pages. Most ethical theories attempt to answer the question of "How ought I to act?" Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". Educational technology tools are a strategic... Summary: Chaos theory is a mathematical theory that can be used to explain complex systems such as weather, astronomy, politics,... Summary: Andragogy refers to a theory of adult learning that details some of the ways in which adults learn differently than... Summary: Dopamine plays a role in motivation, and this role is important to understand in the context of game design.... Summary: Skills necessary for students to master in order for them to experience school and life success in an increasingly... Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is... Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of "stimulus-response." It should directly contain very few, if any, pages and should mainly contain subcategories. The central question of normative ethics is determining how basic moral standards are arrived at and justified. Flipped classrooms are a method of instruction and form of blended learning. It is the practice of learning about, and recommending practices of right and wrong behavior. Start studying What are Ethics and Types of Ethical Theories. Evaluating Three Ethical Theories and Contrast of the Theories. The consideration in virtue ethics is essentially “what makes a good person,” or, for the purpose of this discussion, “what makes a good public relations professional?” Virtue ethics require the decision-maker to understand what virtues are good for public relations and then decisions are made in light of those particular virtues. I have chosen to divide the traditions according to what they see as the basic question of ethics: Most ethical theories attempt to answer the question of "How ought I to act?" The first two are considered deontic or action-based theories of morality because they focus entirely on the actions which a person performs. Its subject consists of fundamental issues of practical decision making, and its major concerns include the nature of ultimate value and the standards by which human actions can be morally evaluated. Our acts and the ultimate reasons behind them are what constitute our morals. Types of the ethical the ethical theory their advantages and disadvantages. The following is a brief summary of the most common categories of ethical theories and frameworks. One cannot study special issues in ethics without some knowledge of the basic ways in which ethical theorists have In other words, if a solution drastically harms a minority group, would it be ethical if the majority benefited from that decision? Ethical Theories. Environmental ethical people focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment. that are good, or better than others, and claim that we should act in ways such that these things occur. Flashcards. Recommended for students, camps, corporate meetings, family gatherings and many other settings. The three major types of ethical theories -- deontological, utilitarian and virtue ethics -- answer these questions differently and each generates different pros and cons. Robot Turtles: The Board Game for Little Programmers has taken the kid coding world over by storm. There are various ethical theories with differences on how they address ethics and morality including virtue theory, deontological ethics, and utilitarianism. Several philosophers have propounded different types of ethical theories which are listed below: Teleological Ethical Theories. WHAT IS ETHICS? (Surprisingly Wikipedia does not list this as an ethical theory even though, with the Divine Command Theory, one could argue it is the basis for most moral decisions). Ethical Implications of Fake News for PR Professionals, Lesson 1: Understanding Ethics & The Profession, Understanding Ethics As a Decision-Making Process, Assumptions of Obligations in the Public Relations Profession, Case Study: Facebook & Burson-Marsteller “Smear Google” Campaign, Lesson 2: Ethics, Trust & Decision Making. When faced with an ethical situation, then, the process is simply one of identifying one’s duty and making the appropriate decision. In this framework, consideration of consequences is irrelevant. This essay examines the most prominent such theories, Some ethical theories that influence nursing practice are Consequentialism, Deontology, Ethical Relativism, Utilitarianism theory, Teleology, Virtue ethics, and Justice and equity. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ethical theories. In Consequential Ethics, the outcomes determine the morality of the act. Many theories have come and gone, while others have withstood the test of time. SLIDE 3 – FORMS OF ETHICAL THEORIES For individuals, the ethical theory they employ for decision making guidance emphasizes aspects of an ethical dilemma important to them and leads them to the most ethically correct resolution according to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. 94 types of ethical theory for them in much the same way they can be good or bad for us. It is not enough... Learning Theories in Plain English Vol. Step by step instructions to the best group games, activities and icebreakers. Offer expires December 30, 2020. Many scholars in public relations identify these issues, as well as others, as evidence that utilitarianism, sometimes called consequentialism due the concept relying on the consequence of a decision, is not as strong of a fit for public relations professional ethics. Using outcomes as a measurement of ethics will not, therefore, provide an accurate way for professionals to measure whether decisions are ethical. © 2020 Learning Theories. Ethical theories 1. Get the official Learning Theories in Plain English eBook, Vol 2 of 2. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Virtue Ethics - Develop Good Character Traits. You are welcome to cite or share the website URL for educational purposes. The third objection is that it is not always possible to predict the outcome of an action. The answers to this question fall into two broad categories—deontological and teleological, or consequentialist.The principal difference between them is that deontological theories do not appeal to value considerations in establishing ethical standards, while teleological theories do. The term deontology is derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”. Engineering Ethics - Ethical Theories Types of Ethical Theories. Test. Types of Ethical Theories: Types of Ethical Theories: 11) We discussed three types of ethical theories. Relativism is a theory that deems your moral obligations and beliefs to be based on the individual environment. You have five patients, each of whom needs a transplant. Ethics or morality (and we’ll use these terms interchangeably) is the broader arena in which any special set of ethical problems is found. For some professionals, their business values may run parallel to their religious codes of conduct. First, please research the following types of ethical theory: consequentialism, deontology, relativism, virtue ethics, and justice. Virtue ethics. Prices go back up after the end of the month! Ebook of the best icebreaker activity guide with detailed step-by-step instructions, templates and more. Proposed by Aristotle, the theory that moral beliefs are primarily influenced by one’s upbringing and class. Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction, discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts... Summary: Constructionism as a learning theory emphasizes student-centered discovery learning, and educators are currently expanding its reach to the field... Summary: Online collaborative learning theory, or OCL, is a form of constructivist teaching that takes the form of instructor-led group... Summary: Learner centered design focuses on creating software for heterogeneous groups of learners who need scaffolding as they learn while... Summary: Distributed cognition is a branch of cognitive science that proposes cognition and knowledge are not confined to an individual;... Summary: Social Network Analysis looks at how people within social networks (for example: families, clubs, Facebook groups) relate to each... Summary: Flow is an optimal psychological state that people experience when engaged in an activity that is both appropriately challenging... Summary: Actor-Network Theory is a framework and systematic way to consider the infrastructure surrounding technological achievements. Over 300 pages in a printable PDF file and NO advertisements! Originators and Key Contributors: Watson... Summary: The phrase game reward systems describes the structure of rewards and incentives in a game that inspire intrinsic motivation... A behaviorist theory based on the fundamental idea that behaviors that are reinforced will tend to continue, while behaviors that... Summary: The GOMS Model is a human information processing model that predicts what skilled users will do in seemingly unpredictable... Once described by a colleague as “Freud in sonnet form”, [5] psychological giant Erik Erikson blurred the line between science... Summary: SWOT is an acronym that stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. One of the largest influences of modern business ethical principles is Kantian theory, which is a type of norm theory. There are generally three philosophical approaches, or what may be considered the science, to ethical reasoning: When people talk about these areas, they are usually discussing an area of ethics known as normative ethics, or the process of considering and determining ethical behavior. Hypothetical imperatives are rules that you follow in order to attain some goal. It is important to note that these three ethical theories emphasize on a different element that relates to different ethical decisions and choices. Deontology The deontological class of ethical theories states that people should adhere to their obliga- Firstly, Kant’s ethical theories have little consideration of human emotion and sentiment (Beauchamp & Bowie 2004). Created by. The following is a brief summary of the most common categories of ethical theories and frameworks. Ethical theories attempt to systematically answer these questions. Having an ethical framework, or a method of deliberating ethical dilemmas, can help us choose the course that is the most ethical. The purpose of this discussion is to give you the opportunity to apply ethical theories to the complex issue of ageism in the workplace, particularly in the area of employment. Deontological ethics, in philosophy, ethical theories that place special emphasis on the relationship between duty and the morality of human actions. Moral virtues like honesty, courage, integrity, temperance and generosity are taken to be inherently good first, then actions are evaluated based on whether they express those virtues. October Special: 30% off Premium Memberships! Two approaches to ethical theory Ethical theory in turn divides into two main types or approaches: virtue ethics: begins by considering what makes a person (or his/her character, character traits, or motives) morally good (Aristotle, Hume) duty ethics: focuses on rules … There are three theories that try to explain the moral principles that are expected from someone in a given situation and how human language can be judged to be right or wrong. Start studying What are Ethics and Types of Ethical Theories. Living an ethical life, or acting rightly, requires... Utilitarianism holds that the amount of happiness and suffering created by a person’s actions is what really matters. 1 of 2) instantly. Name and detail the types making certain to name the “moral primitive” of each, how they are supposed to give reasons to act or refrain from acting in a particular way and the challenges each faces. Learning theories summaries on the Learning-Theories.com website as an electronic book, conveniently organized into one PDF file that you can print and use for your papers or assignments. Second, utilitarian ethics also “presents questions of conflict with regard to which segment of society should be considered most important” in weighing the “good” or outcome. There are several well-respected ways of looking at ethical issues. Different branches of the study of ethics look at where our views of morality come from and how they shape our everyday lives. In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. Some ethical theories that influence nursing practice are Consequentialism, Deontology, Ethical Relativism, Utilitarianism theory, Teleology, Virtue ethics, and Justice and equity. 2 The Reluctant Donor Case: Suppose that you are famous transplant surgeon, and that your transplants always work. The most widely accepted ethical theories are outlined below. Color coded by category, ready for double-sized printing. Finally, a third and growing area of philosophical reasoning with ethics is known as … 2 of 2, Learning Theories Printable Study Flashcards, Classical and Operant Conditioning (Skinner), Separation-Individuation Theory of Child Development (Mahler), Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer), Situated Cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid), Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Development (Bronfenbrenner), Educational Robotics and Constructionism (Papert), Online Collaborative Learning Theory (Harasim), Utilitarianism (Consequence-based Ethics), Fun Online Activities to Try at Home While Social Distancing, Using Mind Maps (Concept Maps) in the Classroom, Creating Educational Card Games with Card Game Toolkit, Mindset Theory – Fixed vs. Growth Mindset (Dweck), Intrinsically motivating instruction (Malone), Positive Psychology / PERMA Theory (Seligman), Flipgrid: Video Discussion Tool for Fostering a Community of Learners, Andragogy – Adult Learning Theory (Knowles), Robot Turtles Review: Coding Game for Kids, EcoChains: A Food Web Game to Teach Climate Change. First, rather than looking at the choice or action itself, decision-makers are forced to guess the potential outcomes of their choice in order to determine what is ethical. Great for building teamwork and helping students get to know each other better! Bowen points out that “consequences are too unpredictable to be an accurate measure of the ethics of a situations.” In other words, consequences of actions can be highly volatile or impossible, even, to predict. Ethical discussion that focuses on how a professional makes decisions, known as applied ethics, are heavily influenced by the role or purpose of the profession within society. Each original text must be representative of a different type of ethical theory. The second prominent concept, deontological ethics, is associated with the father of modern deontology, Immanuel Kant. For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual. Ethical theories and principles are the foundations of ethical analysis because they are the viewpoints from which guidance can be obtained along the pathway to a decision. Professionals must be able to evaluate decisions and choices with concrete ethical guidelines instead of hoping that certain outcomes will result in them having made an ethical choice. To a layperson some of these words may make sense and others may not. It is important, however, that public relations professionals also understand how to apply these concepts to the actual practice of the profession. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Some, called consequentialists , answer that question by pointing to the consequences of our acts and weighing those consequences to determine how we ought to act in a particular situation. Copyrighted Material. You have five patients, each of whom needs a transplant. THEORIES IN ETHICS Presented By: Somya (13105 Khushbu(13105 1 2. Become a Premium member to receive full access, print feature, removing all ads, free lifetime downloads and updates to all eBooks and content. Verified writer. In this book, Broad expounds and criticises five typical theories of ethics, viz. The Six Ethical Theories. These theories help to create the fundamentals of obligation suitable and applicable to professional and personal conduct of a person in his everyday life. Emotivism claims that there are no moral truths and that moral statements are not true or false, but they are simply an individual’s expressions or outbursts of feelings. Lets see an example…. The central question of normative ethics is determining how basic moral standards are arrived at and justified. Get the printable Learning Theories Study Flashcards! TELEOLOGICAL - This describes an ethical theory which judges the rightness of an action in terms of an external goal or purpose. Samantha. This edition first published in 2000. Lets see an example…. Even though ethical theories have different reasons for application, there is an overlap in these theories that result in similar conduct in an ethical situation. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Broadly speaking, there are three competing views on how moral questions should be answered, along with hybrid positions that combine some elements of each. 2.1 Major Ethical Systems When learning how to resolve ethical dilemmas, it is important to be able to articulate a justifiable rationale for why we believe one decision seems right and another seems wrong.Having a basic understanding of the major ethical theories will help us toward an ethical resolution learning how to articulate and justify the decision. TERMS IN AND TYPES OF ETHICAL THEORY. Ethics, the philosophical discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. People vary in the... Summary: Situated Learning Theory posits that learning is unintentional and situated within authentic activity, context and culture. … One of the most influential ethical frameworks, utilitarianism is focused on consequences and results; the sole basis of morality is determined by its... Dear Learning Theories Family, We hope you and your family are staying safe and healthy during this very challenging time. Some of them have been around for centuries. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". Business ethics theories form the foundations for acceptable behaviors and decisions in the work environment. CONSEQUENTIAL ETHICS. First, in terms of the public relations profession, the focus on virtues of the professional themselves seems to miss the importance and role of obligations to clients and publics. Additionally, it also can face the same obstacle as deontological ethics when having conflicting virtues. So, according to a teleological theory, consequences always play some part, be it small or large, in the determination of what one should or should not do. Grunig believes this is a faulty line of reasoning when he suggested that: “We believe, in contrast, the public relations should be based on a worldview that incorporates ethics into the process of public relations rather than on a view that debates the ethics of its outcomes.” In other words, ethics should be about the decision-making process, not just the outcome, which can’t be guaranteed. They need ethical principles derived from the fundamental values that define their work as a public relations professional.” A key thought in this concept is the assumption that there needs to be some objective morals that professionals rely on in order to determine ethical behavior. Roughly, that public relations professionals also understand how to articulate and justify the.... Ethical decision at that point ethical behaviour common categories of ethical theory Commons... The impact to society us toward an ethical resolution learning how to articulate and justify the means. model applied! 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