Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. Rome's second war against Carthage reduced the number of people in the Italian Men had gone off to war.  Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Greek Diodorus Siculus; and the later Roman historians, Plutarch, Appian and Dio Cassius.  Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused.  In 206 BC the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms with him.  By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22.  The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes.  Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides. Reinforced by Gallic allies, he obtained crushing victories over the Romans at the battles of Trebia (218) and Lake Trasimene (217). For the next decade the war in southern Italy continued, with Roman armies slowly recapturing most of the Italian cities that had joined Carthage.  During this period of Roman expansion, Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. Carthage lost many territories that were vital for its survival and success. After the Second Punic War, Rome established itself as the most powerful nation in the Mediterranean.  In a carefully planned assault in 209 BC, he captured the lightly-defended centre of Carthaginian power in Iberia, New Carthage, seizing a vast booty of gold, silver and siege artillery.  Toni Ñaco del Hoyo describes the Trebia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae as the three "great military calamities" suffered by the Romans in the first three years of the war.  Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC.  The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so.  Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. His aim was to join his forces with those of Hannibal, but Hannibal was unaware of his presence. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. In 264 BC to 146 BC the Romans were involved in a prolonged war with the Carthaginians, known as the Punic War. How was it almost the equal in power to Rome?  Hamilcar took the army which he had led to victory in the Mercenary War to Iberia in 237 BC and carved out a quasi-monarchial, autonomous state in southern and eastern Iberia. Hannibal arrived with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and an unknown number of elephants—the survivors of the 37 with which he left Iberia—in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy). He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. major wars in the history of time had taken place. But the Romans were still after Hannibal.  In the spring of 216 BC Hannibal seized the large supply depot at Cannae on the Apulian plain. I will attempt to answer all these questions.  The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. , In 206 BC, at the Battle of Ilipa, Scipio with 48,000 men, half Italian and half Iberian, defeated a Carthaginian army of 54,500 men and 32 elephants.  It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans.  The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa and besieged Carthage. The Romans immediately declared war on him. The combined Roman force attacked Hasdrubal at the Battle of the Metaurus and destroyed his army, killing Hasdrubal. Rome and Carthage were once on a friendly term until things went south well. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. , In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 6] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian rear. Carthage was reduced to a mere client state of Rome and its navy was reduced to just ten ships and they were forbidden from raising an army without the permission of Rome.  The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. In 211 BC, Hannibal sent a force of Numidian cavalry to Sicily, which was led by the skilled Liby-Phoenician officer Mottones, who inflicted heavy losses on the Roman army through hit-and-run attacks. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War.  However, the classicist Adrian Goldsworthy considers Livy's "reliability is often suspect"; the historian Phillip Sabin refers to Livy's "military ignorance"; and he is generally considered untrustworthy by modern historians. , The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to attempt to fight the Romans by using local resources; raising recruits from among the local population. , In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage.  It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades, after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island.  Despite these losses, the Romans besieged Capua, the Carthaginians' key ally in Italy. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… This was the start of the Second Punic War. , Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. Third Punic War. Soon Carthage felt strong enough to fight Rome. Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. , The Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome. Accordingly, this war has captured, Carthage vs. Rome; the Punic Wars His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. , In 219 BC a Carthaginian army under Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked Saguntum and in spring 218 BC Rome declared war on Carthage. Hannibal’s Plan Had One Fatal Flaw. Archimedes before being killed by the Roman soldier – copy of a Roman mosaic from the 2nd century, An Iberian warrior from bas-relief c. 200 BC. , The peace treaty the Romans subsequently imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The term ‘Punic’ comes from the Latin word ‘Punicus’ meaning Carthaginian.  In 149 BC, fifty years after the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage sent an army, under Hasdrubal, against Masinissa, the treaty notwithstanding.  After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south.  The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina).  The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. , The prisoners were badly treated if they were Romans; the Latin allies who were captured were well treated by the Carthaginians and many were freed and sent back to their cities, in the hope that they would speak well of Carthaginian martial prowess and of their treatment.  A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. After the Carthaginians failed to resupply the city, Syracuse fell in the autumn of 212 BC; Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier.  After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. 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